LGBTQ LC Subject Headings: 8. Law and Legal

Civil unions
450: Unions, Civil
550: Interpersonal relations
550: Same-sex marriage
670:, Aug. 1, 2003 |b (“Canada, Netherlands, and Belgium now allow gay marriage and Britain is considering civil unions … Several other countries have given gays rights just short of those enjoyed by heterosexual married couples.”)
670: GLAD Web site, Dec. 1, 2003 |b (Civil Marriage v. Civil Unions – What’s the Difference?: “A civil union is a legal status … [that] provides legal protection to couples at the state law level, but omits federal protections as well as the dignity, clarity, security and power of the word ’marriage.’”)
670: Lambda Legal Web site, Dec. 1, 2003 |b (What is a Civil Union?: “A civil union is a comprehensive legal status parallel to civil marriage for all purposes under Vermont state law. As of July 1, 2000, a same-sex couple from any state — where each person is at least age 18, competent, and not closely related by blood — may apply to Vermont town clerks for a civil union license, have that license “certified” by a judge, justice of the peace or willing member of the clergy, and then receive a civil union certificate. This process parallels Vermont law on entering into a civil marriage.”)
670: LC database, Dec. 1, 2003 |b (civil unions)

Civil unions–Laws and legislation
450: Civil solidarity pacts
450: Pacts, Civil solidarity
450: Solidarity pacts, Civil
550: Marriage law
670: 2014374388: Baby, W. Les effets patrimoniaux du pacte civil de solidarité, 2013 |b p. 4 of cover (“une offre de conjugalite a part entiere entre le marriage et le concubinage”)
670: Wikipedia (English site), viewed June 2, 2014 |b Civil solidarity pacts (“In France, a civil solidarity pact (French: pacte civil de solidarité), commonly known as a PACS, is a form of civil union between two adults (same-sex or opposite-sex) … As of 2012, 94% of PACS are between opposite-sex couples”

Conflict of laws–Same-sex marriage
450: Same-sex marriage–Conflict of laws
550: N/A
670: Work cat.: 2005543470: Kessler, Guillaume. Les partenariats enregistrés en droit international privé, c2004.

Discrimination against intersex people
450: N/A
550: Intersex people
670: Work cat.: Ghattas, D.C. Human rights between the sexes : a preliminary study on the life situations of inter* individuals, 2013: |b p. 7 (study on the state of discrimination of inter* individuals in 12 selected countries; discrimination against inter* individuals) p. 11 (The aim of the study is to specify–and shed light upon–the largely invisible discrimination against intersex individuals)
670: Agius, S. Human rights and intersex people, 2015: |b p. 8 (discrimination of intersex people) p. 30 (discrimination perpetrated against intersex people on the basis of their sex characteristics) p. 34 (discrimination against trans and intersex people)
670: Agius, S. Trans and intersex people : discrimination on the grounds of sex, gender identity and gender expression, 2012.

Gay adoption
450: Lesbian adoption
450: Same-sex adoption
550: Adoption
670: Work cat.: 95152517: Issues in gay and lesbian adoption, 1994.
670: Lesbian and gay fostering and adoption, 1999.
670: Adoption by same sex couples, 2003: |b p. 2 (same sex adoptions)
680: Here are entered works on adoption of children by gay men or lesbians.

Gay adoption–Law and legislation
450: N/A
550: Adoptive parents–Legal status, laws, etc.
550: Gay couples–Legal status, laws, etc.
550: Gay parents–Legal status, laws, etc.
550: Guardian and ward
670: Work cat.: Adoption by same sex couples, 2003: |b p. 3 (“In November 2002 the Attorney-General [of Tasmania] invited the Law Reform Institute to undertake a project on same sex adoptions. This followed a press release in which the government indicated an intention to legislate to amend all Acts which discriminate against de facto and same sex partners.”)

Gay couples–Legal status, laws, etc.
450: N/A
550: N/A
667-68X: N/A

Gay couples–Legal status, laws, etc.–United States
450: N/A
550: N/A
667-68X: N/A

Gay men–Legal status, laws, etc.
450: N/A
550: N/A
667-68X: N/A

Gay rights
450: Gay and lesbian rights
450: Gay men–Civil rights
450: Gays–Civil rights
450: Lesbian rights
450: Lesbians–Civil rights
450: Rights of gays
450: Rights of lesbians
550: Civil rights
550: Gay men–Legal status, laws, etc.
550: Gays–Legal status, laws, etc.
550: Lesbians–Legal status, laws, etc.
670: Hennepin |b (Gay and lesbian rights)
670: SocioAbs. database, Dec. 1, 1994 |b (Gay rights, Lesbian and gay rights)
670: WorldCat. database, Dec. 1, 1994 |b (Gay rights, Gay and lesbian rights)

Gay rights–United States
450: N/A
550: N/A
667: Record generated for validation purposes.
670: Work cat.: Same-sex marriage, legal mobilization, & the politics of rights, c2002

Gay rights skills seminar manual
450: N/A
550: N/A
670: Sexual orient. and the law, 1985.

Gay-parent families–Law and legislation
450: N/A
550: BT Domestic relations
670: Work cat.: Mezey, S.G. Gay families and the courts : the quest for equal rights, ©2009

Gays–Employment–Law and legislation
450: N/A
550: Gays–Legal status, laws, etc.
550: Labor laws and legislation
670: Work cat.: U.S. Cong. House. Comm. on Small Business. Subcom. on Government Programs. H.R. 1863, the Employment Non-Discrimination Act, hearing … 1996.

Gays–Legal status, laws, etc.
450: Sexual orientation–Law and legislation
550: N/A
667-68X: N/A

Gender identity–Law and legislation
450: N/A
550: Sex and law
670: Work cat.: Grenfell, L. Disrupting law’s categories : transgenderism, feminism, and identity, c2001: |b abstr. (how law understands identity and the question of how law should understand identity; gender identity)

Gender-neutral toilet facilities
450: All-gender toilet facilities
450: Gender-open toilet facilities
450: Non-gendered toilet facilities
450: Unisex toilet facilities
550: Public toilets
550: Restrooms
670: Work cat.: Kopas, M. The illogic of separation : examining arguments about gender-neutral public bathrooms, 2012: |b abstr. (“In the United States, gender separation is the norm for public bathrooms. As one of the few remaining public spaces that are regularly explicitly segregated by gender, bathrooms are often experienced as sites of symbolic and physical exclusion by transgender and gender non-conforming people. For this reason, one focus of transgender activism in the United States and elsewhere has been safe access to public bathrooms – often by advocating for ’gender-neutral’ configurations.”)
670: Wikipedia, Apr. 28, 2015 |b (Unisex public toilet. A unisex public toilet, alternatively called a unisex bathroom, unisex lavatory, gender-neutral public toilet, gender-neutral washroom, or often shortened to just unisex toilet or unisex restroom is a public toilet that people of any gender or gender identity may use. Developers may use these restrooms in order to save costs and space for eliminating the need for a separate facility, such as on airliners, trains or buses. According to Dalhousie University, Canada: “A gender-neutral washroom is one where the signage is visibly identified with open, inclusive language, not just male or female. It’s evident these facilities are void of gender identity and have accommodations that are especially sensitive to the needs of a greater range of people. Some people are not comfortable using male or female-designated washrooms.”)
670: Refuge restrooms website, Apr. 28, 2015: |b About (gender neutral or safe restroom)
670: Queens University (Kingston, Ont.). Vice-Principals’ Operations Committee record of decision (2012-044) approval of the gender neutral washroom policy, 2012, viewed online Apr. 28, 2015: |b title page (gender neutral washrooms) PDF p. 2 (the university shall ensure the existence of at least one gender neutral washroom (or change room with shower, where appropriate, as in residences and athletic facilities) on every floor (where washrooms exist) of every newly constructed or significantly renovated building on campus. Further, the University shall repurpose all single-user, gender specific washrooms into gender neutral facilities as funding becomes available)
670: Brown, P.L. A quest for a restroom that’s neither men’s room nor women’s room, in New York times, March 4, 2005, viewed online Apr. 28, 2015 |b (gender-neutral bathrooms in public places; the University of Chicago, where the Queer Action Campaign for Gender-Neutral Bathrooms recently got 10 single-use restrooms on campus designated gender neutral; gender-neutral bathrooms; “de-gendered” restrooms; Major new construction on the University of California, Santa Barbara, campus is also going to include gender-neutral bathrooms; restroom access based on gender identity is an evolving area of the law; board of supervisors of Alameda County adopted a resolution forbidding discrimination in public facilities, including restrooms, based on gender identity)
670: Bellware, K. Gender-neutral bathrooms are quietly becoming the new thing at colleges, in The Huffington post, 07/18/2014, viewed on Apr. 28, 2015 |b (“A popular student center at Northwestern University is the latest college campus facility to embrace gender-neutral bathrooms. New to campus this fall will be a pair of such restrooms — sometimes called ’all-gender’ restrooms — at the school’s Norris University Center. ’These are two gender-open bathrooms where students of any gender can go in, and use the restroom, and feel safe, regardless of gender expression or gender identity,’ Michelle Margulis, president of NU’s Rainbow Alliance LGBT student group told CBS Chicago. … There are more than 150 schools across the U.S. that have gender-neutral bathrooms … Just this month, Illinois State University re-labeled their ’all family’ restrooms to ’all-gender’”; non-gendered bathroom)
670: Judd, A. Vancouver Park Board votes to install gender-neutral washrooms, in Global news website, Apr. 29, 2014, viewed on Apr. 28, 2015 |b (gender-neutral washrooms in public buildings; Other regions across Canada offer gender-neutral facilities, but Vancouver is the first municipality to amend building codes to accommodate the washrooms in public buildings)
670: Chasmar, J. Mass. moves on “unisex” restrooms for transgender students, in The Washington times, February 21, 2013, viewed online Apr. 28, 2015 |b (“The Massachusetts Department of Education has issued a new directive for schools in the handling of transgendered students, including allowing them to use whichever restroom they choose. ’Transgender students who are uncomfortable using a sex-segregated restroom should be provided with a safe and adequate alternative, such as a single ’unisex’ restroom or the nurse’s restroom,’ the 11-page directive reads.”)

Homophobia–Law and legislation
450: N/A
550: Sex and law
670: Work cat.: Bell, M. After the Framework Directive : combating discrimination outside employment, 2002: |b PDF p. 4 of cover (combating the entrenched social and legal discrimination that lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people; legislation designed to prohibit discrimination in other spheres of life, such as healthcare, education, and housing)
670: Cahill, S. Glass nearly half full : 47% of U.S. population lives in jurisdiction with sexual orientation nondiscrimination law, 2005: |b PDF p. 1 (nondiscrimination laws banning discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people) p. 5 (executive order against anti-gay discrimination)
670: About homophobia website, Jan. 8, 2006 |b (anti-gay laws)
670: Kendall, C.N. Homophobia as an issue of sex discrimination, 1996, via WWW, Jan. 8, 2006 |b (“no Australian court of law or administrative tribunal has yet to accept the argument that laws against sex discrimination necessarily forbid discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation … legislative recognition that discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation is illegal would serve an important symbolic function”)

Homosexuality in the workplace
450: Lesbianism in the workplace
550: Work environment
667-68X: N/A

Homosexuality–Law and legislation
450: Sexual orientation–Law and legislation
550: Sex and law
667-68X: N/A

Legal assistance to gays
450: Legal representation of gays
550: Gays–Legal status, laws, etc.
550: Legal services
670: Work cat.: National Lesbian and Gay Law Association (U.S.). Membership directory, 1993-1994.

Legal assistance to transgender people
450: Legal representation of transgender people
550: Legal services
550: Transgender people–Legal status, laws, etc.
670: Work cat: Transgender family law : a guide to effective advocacy, [2012].

Lesbians–Legal status, laws, etc.
450: N/A
550: N/A
667-68X: N/A

Police services for sexual minorities
450: Police social work with sexual minorities
550: Sexual minorities
670: Work cat.: Poláček, R. Joining forces to combat homophobic and transphobic hate crime : cooperation between police forces and LGBT organisations in Europe, 2010: |b p. 23 (support services for victims) p. 47 (establishing cooperation between police and all local agencies and organisations providing victim services) p. 60 (policing services for LGBT people)

Same-sex divorce
450: Gay divorce
450: Homosexual divorce
550: Divorce
670: Work cat.: Same-sex marriage … and divorce!, 2004.
670: CNN WWW site, Dec. 10, 2004 |b (the first gay divorce case in Suffolk)
670: San Francisco examiner WWW site, Mar. 2, 2004 |b (San Francisco: the gay divorce capital)
670: Canadian content community WWW site, July 22, 2004 |b (Canada’s first same-sex divorce … the first homosexual divorce)

Same-sex marriage
450: Gay marriage
450: Homosexual marriage
450: Lesbian marriage
450: Same-sex unions
550: Marriage
550: Civil unions
670: NYT index |b (lists Feb. 5, 1992 article praising the ’love and commitment’ of homosexual ’marriages’ and a Sept. 28, 1991 article urging legalization of gay marriages)
670: LC database, July 16, 1992 |b (lesbian and gay marriage)
670: LC database, June 27, 1997 |b (same-sex marriage; same-sex unions)

Same-sex marriage–Law and legislation
450: N/A
550: Marriage law
670: Work cat.: 97-110835: Michigan Legislative Research Bureau. Same-sex marriages, 1996.

Sodomy–Law and legislation
450: N/A
550: Criminal law
667-68X: N/A

Transgender people–Employment
450: N/A
550: N/A
667-68X: N/A

Transgender people–Employment–Law and legislation
450: N/A
550: Labor laws and legislation
550: Transgender people–Legal status, laws, etc.
670: Work cat.: Koch, K. Transgender employment discrimination, 2007.

Transphobia–Law and legislation
450: N/A
550: Sex and law
670: Work cat.: Koch, K. Transgender employment discrimination, 2007.

Transsexuals–Legal status, laws, etc.
450: Transsexualism–Law and legislation
550: N/A
670: N/A

Note: These terms reflect LC Authorities as it appeared on 17 Oct 2019.